School learning from a constructivist view, is not at all limited exclusively to the cognitive level in the strict sense, but must also have other motivational aspects such as intentions, goals, perceptions and beliefs that have the learner, that although we are aware that these aspects are also mental representations in last stay, demonstrating the enormous interrelationship maintaining cognitive and affective-motivational level
The main theories of motivation show self-concept, causal attribution patterns, and learning goals. Consequently, these factors and their interrelationship largely determine school motivation. They are therefore obliged reference of every teacher that you want to influence the motivation of students. Finally, commenting that the construct patterns of causal attribution, as a determinant personal construct of school motivation, it would be closely linked to this affective component because attributional patterns student are determined, largely by the affective-emotional consequences of performing the task, as well as the successes and failures in the same.
One of the most important functions of self-concept is to regulate behavior through a process of self or self-consciousness, so that the behavior of a student at a given time is determined largely by the self-concept that holds at that time. The subject anticipates the result of their conduct from the beliefs and values that makes its capabilities; i.e. generates good expectations of success, failure well that will impact on their motivation and performance.
Moreover, numerous studies have shown significant correlation between self-esteem (positive or negative self-concept) and the locus of control can deduce that as we develop the self-esteem of the students also improve their attribution causal. So we have that subjects with low self-esteem often attribute their successes to external and uncontrollable (chance) factors and failures to stable, uncontrollable internal factors (low capacity), while subjects with high self-esteem tend to attribute their successes to internal factors and stable (capacity) or internal, unstable and controllable factors (effort) and their failures to internal and controllable factors (lack of effort).
To explain the performance of a student is imperative, therefore, take into account both the actual capacities and personal beliefs about their own abilities to do homework. Student performance depends less on the actual capacity and the believed or perceived ability. There is a noticeable difference between having a capacity and know how to use in different situations. In the educational field only two types of emotions have received attention to date, anxiety (anxiety), and mood (mood). For now only they have studied the cognitive effects of these emotions on performance, forgetting the motivational effects.
A set of effects, triggered by positive emotions related to the task (process-related emotions), leading to an increase in performance, such as enjoying performing a task (task enjoyment) occur. If emotion is experienced sooner or later, you cannot assume that their effects on information processing (using strategies, attentional processes, etc.) can have a direct influence on implementation. However, if that were detected numerous indirect effects on mid implementation by the impact of emotions on motivation. For example, experienced hope before undertaking the task can positively influence motivation and therefore the conduct and execution.
While positive emotions produce generally positive effects that impact positively on learning, the overall effects of negative emotions is more diverse, they can be both positive and negative. Regarding the negative emotions related to the process (process-related emotions) include boredom. The first function of boredom can be motivating the student to seek another job or rewarding alternative. Boredom leads to reduce intrinsic motivation and cognitively escape the task. As a result, the total decreased motivation of the task, even in cases of high extrinsic motivation.
Furthermore it is assumed that the prospective and retrospective negative emotions can produce simultaneous positive and negative effects. The net result will depend on the intensity of such opposing influences. Thus, it is considered that anxiety reduces the positive intrinsic motivation and induces negative intrinsic motivation to seek a new task and avoid that had been proposed. However anxiety related to the failure or negative results can produce a high motivation to avoid such failures. For example, if a student is afraid of not getting a good note, the anxiety that produces this concern will prevent the execution of the task and creativity will be reduced, but these negative effects can be offset by an additional effort extra work for prevent failure.
Overall we can say that emotions can greatly influence learning and performance of students. However, it also notes that the relationship between emotions and execution is by no means simple way, in the sense of "positive emotions, positive effects, negative emotions, and negative effects." Instead, the influence of emotions may be mediated by different mechanisms involving cumulative or conflicting effects, making it difficult to predict the effects on performance. Specifically, while the effects of positive emotions can be beneficial in most cases, the impact of negative emotions such as dissatisfaction or anxiety can cause ambivalent effects. In the same vein, moderate anxiety in mathematics, not only reduces the yield but can facilitate it. On the contrary, a very high level of anxiety significantly inhibits performance, as it appears as a disruptive factor of motivational and cognitive processes that are involved directly on the skills necessary for troubleshooting.
The teacher's role is crucial in the formation and change of academic and social self-concept of students. The teacher is the most influential person in the classroom so students highly valued his opinions and his treatment of it. A child to their peers, received sustained criticism for its failures teacher, whose autonomy and initiative systematically nullifies are receiving negative messages to their self-esteem. Instead, a student who was listening, is respected and encouraged to failure is receiving positive messages to their self-esteem. In short, we can say that both the teacher's performance as academic and social interactions of students play an important role in the development of self-concept.
Actions of the teacher are intended to prevent repeated failures experienced by subjects in learning, not so much for their skills and their lack of motivation, which lead them to develop beliefs of lack of competition, which in turn, lead low expectations of achievement and as a result little involvement in the tasks and poor school performance.